A quick tip post on using Knockoutjs to create a certain type of common web UI component. The short and sweet summary is that I’ll show how to create a shuttle control using two select boxes that are bound to arrays of Javascript objects (instead of simple value types) using Knockoutjs. Before getting to that though I’ll provide some background on the various component used to create the UI.

A shuttle component, AKA two select boxes with buttons that move things between them is a commonly seen in permission or role assignment scenarios.

A shuttle

The general concept is that one list contains the set of all things that the user could select, by selecting items in the list of all things and clicking a button the user can move his or her selection into the other list. The process of selecting and moving can be repeated in order to achieve the desired list of assigned items.

Changing gears, Knockoutjs is a javascript framework that makes data driven web UIs easier to write. At a more technical level Knockout is a framework which helps client side developers implement the MVVM pattern. Kockoutjs helps developers by driving the creation, updating, and deletion of HTML (or more accurately the browser DOM) from a developer defined set of javascript objects. For example, Knockoutjs can be used to populate a select dropdown instead of manually populating it by ‘binding’ the element to an array of strings.

<select multiple size="8" data-bind="options: myList">

See this jsFiddle for a complete example of how it works, and the gist here for just the source code.

Knockoutjs has a number of other powerful features and bindings, but that is better covered by their tutorials and manual. Before moving on to how to create an object based Knockoutjs shuttle though there are two more things worth covering. One is that Knockoutjs also allows binding elements to objects. Two is that Knockoutjs also provides a click binding which allows us to capture the action of a user clicking on something.

<select multiple='multiple' data-bind="options: myList, optionsText: 'name', optionsValue: 'id' "></select>

Here we’ve updated the prior jsFiddle to include objects and a clickable button and here is the gist.

Using the above we can create two select boxes that are each driven by the contents of an array of objects. We can also wire up a couple buttons to execute two different functions when clicked.

&lt;select multiple='multiple' data-bind="options: myList, optionsText: 'name', optionsValue: 'id' "&gt;&lt;/select&gt;
&lt;select multiple='multiple' data-bind="options: myOtherList, optionsText: 'name', optionsValue: 'id' "&gt;&lt;/select&gt;

After yet another update to our fiddle and gist we now have multiple select boxes.

The above is great and Knockoutjs even provides a binding, selectedOptions to get the ids of the objects that are selected by the user. Which is awesome if the intent is to turn around and submit those ids in a form POST action, unfortunately we want to take a set of selected ids and use those to move elements from one array of objects to another. Something we can’t do with Knockoutjs is use a dictionary (where the ids of object give us direct access to the objects themselves) which leaves us stuck unless we do something creative.

What can be done though is using the selected id list to find elements in source object array to remove. Fortunately the remove method in Knockoutjs’s array implementation returns the object being deleted from the array. The object that is removed from the source array is also the object we want to move into the other array. So the general method for creating the move action in the shuttle is to:

  1. Get the list of selected ids from the source array
  2. For each selected id, find the object in the source array with that id and remove it
  3. Add the returned object to the other select’s source array

Astute observers will note at this point this operation has a worst case run time which is O(n^2) where n is the count of all selectable items it is also worth pointing out though that in most cases this operation will be working against fairly small sets of data, keeping the run time short.

Let’s take a look at what the above operation looks like using knockout observable arrays:

self.moveLeft = function () {
    var sel = self.selectedMyOtherList();
    for (var i = 0; i &lt; sel.length; i++) {
        var selCat = sel[i];
        var result = self.myOtherList.remove(function(item) {
            return item.id == selCat;
        if (result && result.length &gt; 0) {

The above javascript is for moving items from the right select list to the left select list. We used knockout’s selectedOptions binding to populate the ‘selectedMyOtherList’ object. When the function is executed (in response to a button click) the selected items are captured and then enumerated. During the selected item enumeration we attempt to find each item in the right options list, remove it, and put it into the option list that drives the box on the left. Finally we clear the selected item object since we don’t want knockoutjs to think that items we removed from the right hand list are still selected.

We can tie this all together now so that the left and right arrow buttons move items left and right respectively. The fiddle here has a full working example. The gist here has a full single page example you can copy and open locally in a browser.

I hope this post was helpful since when I initially searched for shuttle implementations I didn’t find anything immediately useful.